Tuesday, November 29, 2016

My first visit to the TEDx event "Brave New World" by Saxion University

So let's talk about my first visit to a TEDx event, but if you first want to know what the difference between TED and TEDx is, click here to learn more about the TEDx program.

This event was hosted by Saxion University in the Schouwburg in Deventer, The Netherlands. The theme this year was "Brave New World". This is obviously a reference to the book Brave New World by Aldous Huxley (1932), as the theme is all about our future world and how we could envisage it.

Photo of the stage of TEDx SaxionUniversity
The hostess Dorothée Loorbach did an amazing job in introducing the speakers and to energize the audience. Well done! The topics were broader than expected, which I found very nice and refreshing. It went from envisioning a future in living on Mars, to an Anon inspired dance, to growing algae in solving world food resources and a skilled musician utilizing multiple instruments. But also from inspiring speakers in forgiving and love, even after a terrorist attack, to immigrating to the Netherlands and achieving amazing results in education, to learn to feel happy even while being incarcerated.

Four talks inspired me in different, but for me fundamental, ways. One of which was a video of a TED.com talk.

The first talk was that of Dorothy Oger with "Let’s change the world, one poem at a time". The talk she had was about a friend being killed in a terrorist attack in Brussels in 2016. The way she could inspire the world to give love, even in the worst time a person can experience in life, was breathtaking inspiring. After the poem was said by Dorothy it was spoken in several other languages. One of which was Vietnamese. Although I do not speak Vietnamese yet, my fiancé does. Hearing words of love in the mother-language of my loved one touched me deeply.

The second talk was that of Pamela Nicoletatos with "Future Beyond Earth". I recognize myself in her words about being drawn to the universe, the endless curiosity in what's out there and what it would be like setting foot on a planet much different from Earth. I am no way near being a pioneer as her though, so many props for that! The human species becoming a spacefaring species is my dream also, and I often let me take into other worlds through science fiction in books, movies, series and games.

The third talk was that of Wouter Kroese and Willem Herter with "Future of Healthcare". This talk really got my attention due to my profession as an Information Security Officer and my work experience at a health-insurance company. I believe we, as a society, have become a bit to protective over our medical data (although for good reasons) and I too agree that merging Big Data capabilities with medical research can greatly benefit overall healthcare while decreasing costs or at least stabilizing them. The privacy concerns need to be considered, but approaching this question with a "yes, when..." instead of a "no, unless..." can spark innovations while keeping the checks and balances.

The fourth talk was a video from TED.com by James Veitch with "This is what happens when you reply to spam email". You just must watch the video, because it is hilarious what can happen if you reply to scam email. It makes me think the next time I receive such an email. And for the Information Security Officers watching the video, although it is attempting to learn people through awareness campaigns to reply to spam, let's agree we stay away from that!

Overall an amazing experience which gave me new insights, a fun time, and inspiration to be on that red dot some day too!

Monday, October 3, 2016

Ben jij Alert-Online, of Alert-Offline? (Dutch)

De overheid is bezig met haar jaarlijkse campagne genaamd Alert-Online (1) om online veiligheid te promoten. Hoewel het soms op gespannen voet lijkt te staan met de alsmaar verruimende bevoegdheden van inlichtingendiensten, staat de discussie omtrent privacy (en vooral de bescherming ervan) stevig in het daglicht. Maar onderzoeken laten zien dat de gemiddelde burger (lees: jij en ik) het allemaal niet zo nauw neemt met de digitale veiligheid (3). Er is in een zekere mate een onwetendheid op dit gebied, maar ook een onuitgesproken verwachting dat bedrijven het wel voor jou doen.

Bij auto's is het allemaal wel duidelijk. Immers de remmen, gordels, airbags, kreukelzone, en de tal van andere opties worden allemaal geleverd en uitvoerig getest door de fabrikant. Vaak onder strikte toezicht van overheden volgens een bijna onuitputbare lijst met eisen en richtlijnen. Want als jij op de rem trapt moet het gewoon werken, en dan moet jij niet eerst nog wat ingesteld of geupdate moeten hebben. Helaas werkt dat in de digitale wereld nog wat anders. Het werkt zelfs niet vanzelfsprekend in het domein van diezelfde auto en de digitale wereld. Zaken zijn inmiddels bekend van auto's die op afstand gehackt worden en waarvan de controle overgenomen wordt (2). En met alle gevolgen van dien! Want heb jij een auto met Bluetooth? Tjee, mijn auto heeft zelfs een Wifi-antenne zodat, wanneer ik dicht genoeg bij mijn huis ben, de auto kan koppelen aan het netwerk (waarom?)...

Maar ook in huis zijn de nodige aandachtspunten. Als jij een webcam op je kinderen hebt gericht, denk jij er ook aan om de software daarvan te updaten? Wist jij dat er een tal van merken zijn die het niet zo nauw nemen met de digitale veiligheid van jullie kinderen? Want er is wederom een geval bekend dat camera's door derden (lees: onbevoegden) bekeken worden (4). En als je dan bedenkt dat je vast ook wel eens de luier verschoont voor zo'n camera, dan wordt jouw belang van veiligheid mogelijk in een oogwenk anders.

Nee, de digitale veiligheid gaan niet over rozen en het lijkt vaak een ver van je bed show. En toch raakt het je direct. Bankieren via de digitale wereld is nagenoeg zonder fraude met voor de banken verwaarloosbare fraude-cijfers (5), maar helaas verdwijnt criminaliteit niet. Het verplaatst alleen, en ditmaal dichterbij de burger. Vaak met behulp van phishing (het ontfutselen van inloggegevens) wordt je verleidt tot aankopen, of wanneer je actief bent met daten is het mogelijk dat je verleidt wordt tot situaties die eigenlijk net wat te mooi om waar te zijn.


Helaas is een veilige digitale wereld nog geen vanzelfsprekendheid en ligt er een deel van de verantwoordelijkheid echt bij jezelf. Een ketting om je toetsenbord zal je niet verder gaan helpen, daarom hieronder een kleine greep uit de maatregelen die je kan nemen.

  • Hergebruik nooit je wachtwoorden. Gebruik voor elk online account een ander wachtwoord van tenminste 12 posities. Een uniek wachtwoord van 12+ posities voor elk account is belangrijker dan een extreem moeilijk wachtwoord. En een wachtwoordbeheer applicatie kan hierbij helpen (6).
  • Denk even na over welke apparatuur in je huis allemaal een Wifi verbinding heeft. Mijn huis telt er al tenminste 12. Denk daarbij aan apparaten als de TV, thermostaat, tablets, telefoons, en soms zelfs de koelkast en de smart-wasmachine. En onderzoek (bijvoorbeeld via de website van de leverancier) of er (security) updates zijn. Vandaag heb ik ontdekt dat ik mijn Essent E-Thermostaat ook kan updaten, en dat ga ik vanavond na 2 jaar dan ook maar eens doen. 'Zelfs' ik denk dus niet aan alles.... In het kort: installeer altijd alle security updates van elk apparaat dat aan het internet gekoppeld is.
  • Voor het geval dat je toch gehackt bent, zorg ervoor dat de webcam van je laptop of desktop fysiek dicht kan. Dit kan vaak al met een paar euro kostende webcam cover. Dit voorkomt dat er privé foto's en video's van jouw of je kinderen gemaakt worden.

Wil je meer weten over je digitale veiligheid? Surf dan eens naar de website van Alert Online (1) en Fraude Helpdesk (7) en onderzoek hoe offline jij wel of niet bent!

  1. Alert Online: https://www.alertonline.nl/
  2. NOS.nl: http://nos.nl/artikel/2135670-we-waren-echt-de-sigaar-want-alles-stond-op-die-computer.html
  3. NOS.nl: http://nos.nl/artikel/2123374-hackers-kraken-opnieuw-een-jeep-cherokee.html
  4. Metro Nieuws: http://www.metronieuws.nl/xl/digitaal/2016/08/russische-website-hackt-cameras-en-kijkt-met-je-mee
  5. NVB: https://www.nvb.nl/nieuws/2016/4991/daling-fraude-met-internetbankieren-zet-door.html
  6. Gratis Software: http://www.gratissoftware.nu/gratis-wachtwoord-beheer-software.php
  7. Fraude Helpdesk: https://www.fraudehelpdesk.nl/
UPDATE: Ik heb inmiddels mijn E-thermostaat bijgewerkt naar de meest actuele firmware versie :).

Monday, September 12, 2016

Cyber, just as old as ancient human history

Recently I visited a seminar on which the question was asked about what was new on the phenomenon cyber. Although I somehow find we still should #ditchcyber, I started thinking about that question. After some internal computing time I came to the conclusion that cyber is nothing new and that is just as old as ancient human history. Well, that is, the paradigm in which cyber resides is ancient.

Fifth paradigm of warfare

In June 2016 the NATO officially declared the cyberspace as the fifth domain of warfare. The other four are land, sea, air and space. With the ongoing attacks and governments ranking up their cyber-capabilities, our precious infrastructure is becoming ever more a potential zone of conflict. But why is this a development that needs real attention?

Every paradigm strengthens the other

Once there was merely conflict on land. People attacked each other with ordinary weapons. First it was all melee combat which ‘soon’ was strengthen by ranged combat. But still, everything was done on land and defenses grew in time to withstand such attacks. When the second paradigm, sea, came into play battles changed quickly. Not only were battles fought on sea, but sea was also used to strengthen land combat. Troops could be sent in through ships in (at first) defenseless harbors.

The third paradigm took a while to arise in our arsenal of conflict zones, but it came with devastating capabilities. Through the air many defenses became almost pointless (like city walls) and aerial combat strengthen both land and sea warfare. Even planes could take off from carriers to strike on land, sea and in the air.

Space was the fourth paradigm, and as far as we know all countries uphold the international treaty about not bringing warfare to space. Often people do not know that the treaty is only about ground-to-space and space-to-space combat and that it does not include space-to-ground combat. So it is ‘allowed’ to use satellites for ground bombardments, but you will have to violate the treaty to take down the satellite that is attacking.

We should be thankful for countries upholding the treaties so far. When you look at the four paradigms combined with our increasing capabilities you see that the potential casualties of conflict increase. And I want to emphasize on the potential part, because since 1945 the absolute casualties due to conflict has been decreasing ever since (Our World in Data).

Screenshot of Kaspersky Lab Cybermap
Cyber, the fifth paradigm, recently emerged from our endless increasing capabilities in computing, storage and networking power. The Internet came to life and our lives and everything else are becoming ever more interconnected. But also already present land, sea, air and space capabilities are strengthened by the use of cyber technologies. Just think about drones that are bombing regions remotely and critical infrastructures like power grids that are taken offline through the means of cyber. The potential damages (most often economical for now) are increasing all the time. And sooner, rather than later, casualties will also be the result of cyber-attacks.

Casualties just might seem far-fetched, but think about remotely interrupting pacemakers and taking down critical infrastructure like electricity and fresh water. Taking does down in regions suffering from extreme heat might result in many fatalities due to dehydration and overheating. But also driverless cars crashing into each other, or planes that can be hacked from the ground.

Cyber is not new, but it has a key new characteristic

Most often our government is taking care of the defense of land, sea, air and space. There is an army for external intruders, and there is often a police-force for internal advisories. Countries also have intelligence agencies that feed the governments they represent with intel on what (potential) enemies our doing and planning. We as citizens might have a good night sleep without worrying to much about being invaded, knowingly that this sadly does not apply to all of us.

The new aspect of the cyber domain is that we cannot depend on the government alone for proper protection of, well, kind of everything and more than that. Companies and individuals alike also have to contribute to the overall safety of our world. It is imperative that those with power use such powers with responsibility. And I do not mean superheroes, but nation leaders, CEOs, CIOs, CTOs, CISOs and everyone else that can influence budgets to rank up the cyber defense. And in essence, they just might be the modern-day cyber-heroes.

So is Cyber new? No, it’s paradigm is ancient, just like any other. It has opportunities, risks, weapons and defenses. But the fact that it needs to be protected by everyone, instead of only the government, with the power to influence its security is new.

Oh, and again #ditchcyber, it most often clouds (no pun intended) discussions on the things that matter.

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

Make Security and Privacy Awareness ubiquitous

"Yeah, let's create a page and put all information there that our users and/or customers need to stay secure!” Sounds familiar? Do you have a so called awareness page somewhere on your intranet or website? But are you suffering from lack of traffic, or at least, a lack of success of that page?


In my recent post “Need Security Awareness? You're doomed!” I talked about that Security Awareness is the last thing you should focus at (I was overstating that on purpose of course). For the worse part of it, with awareness you are depending on the weakest link in the chain, and that are humans. And humans have proven to be relentless in not following guidelines whenever they feel they need to. So how we can inspire to follow the guidelines? Well, with proper awareness...

I think that there are two fundamental principles that needs to be taken into account with awareness. First of all, do not only tell how, but focus on why. And when you tell it, tell it when it happens. Tell it when there is a change! I will zoom in on those two principles, but first I want to make another difference. There are also two types of awareness. One is about Security and the other is about Privacy. A good understanding of the differences of these two types will help you in telling why and how.

Example with thanks to Bob

A customer, let’s name him Bob, logs on your website and decides he wants to change his password. He goes to his accounts settings and to the tab about his passwords. He just sees two blank fields, fills in the same password as his e-mail account twice and hits the button OK. Some algorithm approved his password, as it is complex enough. Say something like: [email protected]. It is long and difficult. Right?

Two things failed here. First of all, he re-used his password and his password is anything but complex. It is probably far from ‘unique’ (for as far that it is literally possible) and likely ill-often used and present in password-guessing tools. But there is a third thing that failed tremendously. The chance for an effective awareness message presenting to Bob has not been given.

What if there was a message like below, before Bob could change is password?

When choosing your password it is important that you choose one that you do not use with other services. It is possible that your password gets stolen through another service than ours, but that it is being misused on our service. Your privacy is then compromised and that is something we really want to prevent. To remember all your passwords you can use a password manager tool which will help you better protect your own privacy. Click here to see our central privacy protection page to learn more.

And then present the form to change the password. Chances are that he will not re-use a password. It is not a 100% guarantee, but it has higher potential than saying nothing. Why? Because you tell why (it’s about privacy), you tell how (that’s about security) and you tell it when it matters (when the change happens)! I strongly state that this type of awareness is more effective than a distant page.

But what about [email protected] ?

And this is where we need technology to help our colleagues and customers (instead of failing awareness). Implement good filters and regular expressions to enforce a good password policy, but also check it against often used passwords. Also prevent (whenever possible) the use of compromised passwords in combination with the name of the account. Just do not tell the user how a password should look like, but help him or her with it. It’s far more effective!

I am not going into the debate now what the complexity of a password should be. But I rather have it unique and long, than complex and shorter. From a computing perspective, no combination of characters is more complex than another combination of characters. The password ‘A Purple Bunny is swimming in the Ocean’ is more likely to be secure than the example of Bob. Why? Because it makes no sense to people building brute-force algorithms and it has more characters. And it is easier to remember and therefore chances of it being written down are slimmer.

Next step is deleting the awareness page?

Now I am not stating we all should deleting our awareness page, and move to a system like a described above. It’s smart to have a page which contains all the important details combined together. Sometimes people do get interested and it would be a wasted opportunity to not satisfy their information hunger. Let these two co-exist, but focus your time and energy in making awareness training ubiquitous. Make it present everywhere it matters.

Oh, and try to avoid the word awareness. It says something about a person not having something (you are not aware!) then that it is about gaining something (better protection of their privacy).

In other words

Make awareness training ubiquitous by incorporating it within your entire environment by telling how, why and by telling it precisely on the moment it has the greatest impact. The place where change is done, the place where it matters.

Sunday, July 17, 2016

Single Sign On, potentially your biggest Security headache

It is not uncommon for companies pursuing the principle of Single Sign On (SSO) for their information systems, often disguised with the claim to ‘improve’ security. Although I agree that the usability for users are increased in almost in every case, I do not agree that the same applies towards security. On the contrary, if not implemented in a good manner it decreases your security and increases your headache!

To explain my statement, I will take you through some layered thinking about the subject and address some things to do to address SSO in a secure manner.

Password ethics

The ethics towards password use are most often not that of the standards that we as Security Officers would like to see it. This concerns many aspects, such as password uniqueness, password length, and password secrecy. Passwords (or passphrases for that matter) are often not unique, are to short and are kept secret in a rather insecure manner.


Imagine an IT-environment with full-blown SSO with primary accounts that have the same password as somebody’s home computer, combined with passwords that are way to short (anything less than 12 positions is short) and are kept in an spreadsheet on a computer without disk-encryption. And now imagine that such password gets compromised and all extremely sensitive data can be accessed on your corporate network through that one account, just because you implemented SSO.

When thinking about SSO, you need to re-think your password ethics.

Password uniqueness

It is hard to address uniqueness and it is for the most part pure awareness of the people. But there are some things you can address. First of all, make sure passwords cannot be re-used. Whenever a user changed his or her password, it should be at least 20% new. When considering a password of 12 characters, you already have to change at least 3 positions.

Also audit the passwords of your users on regular intervals. On the Internet you can find sources with the most often used passwords. Take a big amount (for instance, the 20, 30 or 100) of most used passwords and make sure users cannot use those passwords and if they do, forcible reset their accounts. Apply these tactics also when password databases of other companies get compromised and compare (if possible) those passwords against your database to prevent misuse of accounts due to hacks at other companies.

Password length

Password length is rather easy to fix. First of all, bump it up from the pretty much default of 8 positions to 12 positions. There is some debate about whether or not it should be a difficult password with special characters and all. I tend to say that when your password is unique within the scope of all accounts of yourself and that it is at least 12 positions long, you are good (enough).

Password secrecy

And now password secrecy. Who doesn’t know that one guy who saves all his passwords in an spreadsheet, so it is convenient for accessing them? Do you realize that you’ll probable have some of those as your co-workers? And that they are likely have access rights to important data-sources?

So give your users the tools to safely store every password. Whether or not this is an on-premise tool or a Cloud-based tool, make sure it has enterprise features like central management for your admins and a full audit trail for your auditors. It will make everybody’s life easier and users can keep their passwords safe. The fact that you are on the verge of implementing SSO, does not mean you can skip the password manager.

Data classification ethics

And then there is the aspect of data classification. The ethics of topics such as these can be made extremely complex or extremely simple (to simple). In many organizations data classification is not really done and for the better part of it, I can totally understand that. But for an improved SSO you will need to have some form of classification.

If you have data classification, you can skip this part. Otherwise this might come in handy. When there is a lack of data classification you can approach this subject with three types of classifications. The first is public.

Public data

Public data may be read by at least anyone in the organization. It does not mean it needs to be readable to everyone, but it might be just as well.

Corporate data

The second one is corporate data. Corporate data is data that may not be read by everyone in the organization. This type of data is important for the business to function, but it lacks protection of laws and it is also not intellectual property.

Secret data

The third one is secret data. All personal identifiable information (PII), intellectual property (IP), and all other information that is subject to law or regulators must be considered as secret data. Most often of the time you can find the crown-jewel data in this category. Think about information that is vital to stock-trading and may not leak due to regulators and think about personal information of your customers that is subject to the EU Privacy Directive.

And now grab some engineers in a team and divide the information systems into these categories. I bet that in 90% of the time these assessments can be done out the top of the head of the engineers.

Stepping up your SSO

When you have put the controls in place to improve password uniqueness, length and secrecy you can move forward to implementing SSO. When implementing SSO you really need to factor in the two-factor authentication (2FA). And this principle is easy.

Whenever a user accesses information in a higher level category, you will need to ask for a new 2FA-code.

There is no need for re-asking the password, just the code from the authenticator app, physical token, YubiKey, SMS or whatever you use for 2FA. This mechanism prevents that when a password gets compromised, that all data can be accessed without further obstruction. 2FA also helps users to detect (in case of SMS) login attempts on their accounts.

There is on caveat though…

There is one caveat in SSO that is often overlooked. The moment you start using a system (such as Active Directory) as the primary source for identity management, it is then by definition the most critical system in your network. You really need to be rigorously protective towards that system.

Therefore, never allow unencrypted traffic towards and from such central system. Never use insecure APIs to connect and make obsolete technologies impossible to use. All security controls are completely irrelevant when some old system that is not SSO compatible transmits the username and password unencrypted over the network just to get it to work.

Summary

To implement a secure single sign on (SSO) you will need to improve the password uniqueness, length and secrecy. You will also need to have at least three categories of data classification. With these controls you can implement SSO with the use of two-factor authentication (2FA). Whenever a system in a higher level of category is accessed, the principle of 2FA needs to be applied. And harden the central system with all its identities and make sure that all data exchanges are well secured.

If you have done the above, you are a big step further to lessen your headache.

Sunday, June 26, 2016

Boek review: Komt een vrouw bij de [email protected], van Maria Genova (Dutch)


Een poosje geleden zag ik wat tweets over het boek "Komt een vrouw bij de [email protected]" van een ene @genova2 voorbijkomen. Hoewel ik dacht dat het boek in de categorie fictie viel besloot ik Maria Genova (de schrijfster van het boek en de persoon achter de hiervoor genoemde Twitter-handle) te gaan volgen. Toen ik enkele maanden later op de conferentie van (ISC)² SecureNetherlands 2016 aanwezig was zag ik in de agenda dat Maria kwam spreken over haar boek. Na een boeiende talk kwam ik met haar via Twitter in contact en kocht ik via haar een persoonlijk signeerde boek! Oh trouwens, het boek is helaas allesbehalve fictie...

Komt een vrouw bij de [email protected] gaat over identiteitsfraude. Ze beschrijft waargebeurde cases ten aanzien van het misbruiken van gegevens door anderen om zich voor te doen als jou. Meestal met nadelige financiële gevolgen voor de originele identiteit (lees: jij). Situaties zoals fraude met betrekking tot het inschrijvingen op je woonadres, mobiele telefoonabonnementen, bestellingen bij online winkels, misbruik van bankgegevens en ga zo maar door, komen allemaal aan bod. Ook gaat ze in op overheidsinstanties en hoe slordig daar (soms?) wordt omgegaan met gevoelige persoonsgegevens. Vaak overigens op de meest eenvoudige manier, zonder complexe hacks door hackers.

Dit is allemaal bijna niet voor te stellen en dus besloot Maria om contact te leggen met een echte hacker om zodoende uit eerste hand te zien hoe eenvoudig digitaal inbreken is. En de informatie op onze computers laten weinig tot de verbeelding over, want nagenoeg alles is te vinden op onze computers. Denk hierbij aan volledige kopieën van identiteitsbewijzen zoals paspoorten en rijbewijzen, maar ook accounts en wachtwoorden die we opslaan in eenvoudig te lezen bestanden, en intieme en soms ook pikante foto's. En niet te vergeten de slechte discipline die gehanteerd wordt ten aanzien van het installeren van alle updates en het hebben van een malware (virus) scanner. Het is een snoepwinkel voor de digitale inbreker.

Dat identiteitsfraude bestaat en plaatsvindt kan ik me nog wel mee verzoenen. Criminaliteit bestaat nu eenmaal en hoewel we het zeker moeten bestrijden, moeten we niet de illusie hebben dat we het kunnen uitbannen. Niet op korte termijn in ieder geval. Wat ik zelf gewoon bijzonder vind en eigenlijk gewoon weg niet begrijp is de mate waarin een slachtoffer wordt ondersteund in dit proces (althans, de mate waarin hij of zij niet wordt ondersteund).

Op het moment dat we iemand op straat zien overlijden krijgen we slachtofferhulp aangeboden (sterker nog, ik kreeg het zelfs aangeboden toen ik aangifte kwam doen van diefstal van mijn fiets). Maar slachtofferhulp bij identiteitsfraude gebeurd gewoon niet. Vaak krijg je al niet eens een aangifte goed verwerkt, is de politie niet deskundig (genoeg) om je te ondersteunen en heb je vaak de schijn al tegen want het is toch 'jouw' handtekening!

De financiële schade is vaak al niet te overzien. Van enkele duizenden tot vele tienduizenden euro's die je gewoon kan ophoesten omdat je in de rechtbank niet geloofd wordt. Onschuldig gevangen zitten is helaas hierbij ook geen uitzondering! Maar ook de impact op je persoonlijke leven is voorbij het denkbare. Geliefden die je niet meer geloven en van je gaan scheiden, vrienden en familie die je in de steek laten want "waar rook is, is vuur" en eveneens het verliezen van je baan en huis.

Identiteitsfraude is realiteit, het krijgt te weinig aandacht van de overheid en justitie, de pakkans is klein en de hoeveelheid aan onschuldige slachtoffers groot! Het boek samengevat in één woord: doodeng...

Maria gaat gelukkig ook in op wat eenvoudige en toepasbare oplossingen die al een groot verschil kunnen maken. Denk hierbij aan het hebben van een uniek wachtwoord voor elk online account, geen kopieën van je legitimatie meer verstrekken tenzij dit van de wet moet (meer info hier), terughoudend zijn met welke informatie je deelt en het installeren van alle updates voor je computer, tablet en telefoon. De tips beslaan meerdere pagina’s en ze zijn erg nuttig en helpen allemaal een beetje bij het (hopelijk) voorkomen van identiteitsfraude.

Wat mij betreft een must-read voor iedereen, ongeacht leeftijd, opleidingsniveau, werkniveau en geslacht. Want iedereen kan slachtoffer worden!

Eerste publicatie: 2014
Pagina’s: 224
ISBN: 978-9-089-75292-5
Link: mariagenova.nl
Lezing: mariagenova.nl/lezingen